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  • WHAT TO VISIT IN COOPER COUNTY | Cooper County Historical Society

    WHAT TO VISIT IN COOPER COUNTY Videos ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ A 10-minute video on a walking tour of homes and buildings in Boonville from the Edward Lang. ​ Collection Note: 12 years ago when the video was made, the tourism building is now the River, Rails and Trails Museum. ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ A 10-minute video trip of interesting homes and buildings in Cooper County from the Edward Lang Collection. ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ A drone's eye view of Boonville as seen on HGTV's Hometown Takeover. ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ Something unique in our area - barn quilts! ​ Note: Tour booklets with directions are available, free of charge, at of charge at: Cooper County Historical Society, River Rails and Trails Museum, The Friends of Historic Boonville and the Chamber of Commerce. HISTORIC MARKERS AT COOPER COUNTY COURTHOUSE ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ War Memorials on the Courthouse grounds Marker honors the Union soldiers killed during the Civil War Plaques in Cooper County Courthouse Honoring Cooper County residents who served in World War II 2 Granite Memorial Benches at Cooper County Courthouse Honoring Veterans of WWII and Viet Nam War North side of Courthouse lawn--Vietnam Veterans Memorial Granite Bench and Tree. Dedicated Nov 11, 2015 by Daughters of the American Revolution, Hannah Cole Chapter South side of Courthouse lawn - WW II Veterans Memorial granite Bench. Dedicated Nov 12, 2018 by Daughters of the American Revolution, Hannah Cole Chapter Courthouse Lawn Marker stating “They died that freedom might not perish from the earth”, Lists names of Cooper County men who died in World War I Marker erected by John A. Hayes, post number 240 GAR to commemorate the battles of June 17, and September 13, 1861 and the capture of Boonville on October 16, 1864 Statue honoring the Boy Scouts of America – 40th anniversary crusade to strengthen the of the American Revolution, marking the Santa Fe Trail, 1821-1921 Inside of Courthouse in the lobby - Plaque listing all Cooper County residents who served in World War II Veterans Memorial Park designed by Missouri sculptor and artist Sabra Tull Meyer, features a beautiful eagle and is located across from the Courthouse on the northwest corner of High and Main Street. The Veterans Memorial Park is located near the Boonville Bridge Route 40. ​ ​ INTERESTING SITES IN BOONVILLE Walking Tour of Boonville – See Rails, Trails and River Museum for map at River, Rail and Trails Museum - Excellent collection of early Boonville artifacts. Free admission - Mitchell Antique Car Museum – See River Rails and Trails Museum for tickets at: River, Rails & Trails Museum, Boonville - Hain House (contact Friends of Historic Boonville ) Thespian Hall (contact Friends of Historic Boonville ) Old Cooper County Jail and Hanging Barn (See Friends of Historic Boonville ) Boonville Cemeteries (See tour map here ) Boonville Churches (See tour map here ) Hannah Cole Statue in Morgan Street Park on the corner of Morgan and Main Street, Boonville KATY Bridge – walk on the old Railroad Bridge with the iconic lift span which was originally part of the MKT railroad KATY Depot – now the Chamber of Commerce building with an old KATY caboose and train signal lights Walking or driving Tour of Homes on Historic Register – (see Historic Register website information in historic homes section of website) Roslyn Heights State DAR Headquarters – (listed as Johnson, Wilbur T and Rhoda Stevens House on National Register) Currently not open for tours Hotel Frederick and Restaurant Morgan Street Park on corner of Morgan and Main Street, Boonville This park features a statue of Hannah Cole and also bronze busts on pedestals of prominent early Cooper County residents who were very influential in their fields: David Barton, George Caleb Bingham, Frederick T. Kemper, James Milton Turner and Walter Williams. (See more about these men in the Early Personalities section of the website.)​ Harley Park – Indian Mounds, great view of the Missouri River Bell Park on High Street – great view of the Missouri River Site of Hannah Cole Fort – First Battle of Boonville and First Missouri State Fair on Morgan Street on the east side, site of old hospital. Grand Army of the Republic marker – marks site of the Second battle of Boonville, on East side of old hospital grounds. Additional marker of the Second Battle of Boonville at the Boonville Correctional Center grounds. Veteran's Memorial Park near Boonville Bridge This barn quilt, which hangs in the River, Rails and Trails Museum, was made by the FanAttics Quilt Club of Boonville. It replicates the 20 hand painted Barn Quilts that are on Cooper County barns. FULL AND HALF-DAY TRIPS Outside of Boonville ​ Barn Quilts – See Rails, Trails & River Museum, Cooper County Historical Society, Friends of Historic Boonville or the Chamber of Commerce for tour map Cooper County Cemeteries (See tour map here ) Cooper County Churches (See tour map here ) New Lebanon Presbyterian Church, school, cemetery, Uncle Abe’s Store Mid 1800’s structures in excellent condition Old Schools - New Lebanon, Lamine and Dick’s Mill (See more about schools here ) Cotton - Dick’s School – one of three remaining one room schools in Cooper County and the only remaining mill (Dick’s Mill ) in Cooper County Last Remaining Stage Coach Stop in the County – on Route 5 between Billingsville and the Petite Saline River Santa Fe Trail Head Park in New Franklin Boonslick State Park with the Salt Lick Pilot Grove - Mt. Nebo Baptist Church ; Old Jail and City Hall, City Park – history of Harriman’s Mill and original Millstone; Rural Pilot Grove - Pleasant Green Plantation , Methodist Church and Cemetery; Burwood and Crestmede Tour of Burwood - Hwy 135 by appointment 660-834-3406 KATY Trail bike trail. Brownfield Roadside Park on old Highway 50. Historical Marker overlooking the area of Jesse James train robbery. Warm Springs Ranch Home of Budweiser Clydesdales (off of Interstate 70) Visit Warm Springs Ranch to book your tour Blackwater - Mid-Missouri Museum of Independent Telephone Pioneers A museum showcases a unique collection of telephone equipment and memorabilia. It is housed in a beautiful building that was originally the Bank of Blackwater. Also visit the ”Depot” train station, now the community center, and the old hotel and restaurant. There are a few antique and trendy shops along the very attractive Main Street. A charming step back in time. Arrow Rock – This lovely little river town was once part of Cooper County and was very instrumental in the early settling and development of the County. A corner of the site still overlaps into Cooper County. It features an excellent historical museum , and the old Huston “tavern” still in operation, plus a variety of State Historic Site : Arrow Rock State Historic Site There are many short trips to take in the Boonville area, but also many things that could turn into a full day trip by visiting several unrelated places out in the County. Here is a suggestion for a full day trip: (But bring your own lunch) Take Highway 5 South out of Boonville. Cross I-70 and take Highway 5 towards Billingsville. About 2 ½ miles from I-70, you will see a sign for Billingsville . Turn left, then right and you will see St. John’s United Church of Christ (1866) and the well-kept cemetery . Return to Route 5 (South) and in less than 1/8 mile , on the right side of route 5, you will see a small stone building with a wooden door. This is the last remaining stage stop in Cooper County (1860). Shortly past the stage stop is a bridge over the Petite Saline River. As you drive over it, imagine that you are driving through the long covered wooden bridge that was once spanned the river there. Continue on Route 5, heading south, and in about 31/2 miles, on the right, you will see a sign for Bellair . Look right, through the trees, and you will see the yellow Pauley house , then on the right side you will see the Bellair Methodist Church (1860 ) with its beautiful stained-glass window. Across from the church is the Leonard home, (1913 ) which was once a school. Soon after the Leonard home , on the left of the highway, you will see the magnificent Ravenswood mansion, which is no longer open to visitors. Continue south until you see a sign on the right for the Hannah Cole Roadside Park and Briscoe cemetery . This is the burial place of Hannah Cole and some of her family. Return to route 5 and turn right onto Highway E. You will pass the Mt. Nebo Baptist Church (1856 ) . At the intersection of E and A, turn left onto Route A, which will take you past Crestmede (1865 ) and into New Lebanon. Here you will see the C umberland Presbyterian Church (1860 ) , Uncle Abe’s Country Store (1926 ) , the New Lebanon School (1889 ) and the New Lebanon cemetery . All are in perfect condition. Continue on A to Otterville where there is a Civil War site along the railroad tracks at the Conservation Center . At Otterville pick up Route BB towards Clifton City. BB turns into Route 135. On 135 you will see Burwood (1880 ) which offers tours, and Pleasant Green Plantation (1820 ) . Continue on 135 through Pilot Grove , which is now the second largest town in Cooper County. Pilot Grove is also the home of the CCHS. Stop in on Friday from 9-12 PM. Also see our Barn Quilt and visit our research center . Email us for an appointment: See the old Calaboose jail. Continue on 135 until you reach Hwy 70 and as you return, remember the great time you had exploring a part of Cooper County! ​ HISTORICAL/MEMORIAL MARKERS IN COOPER COUNTY Hannah Cole gravesite at Briscoe Cemetery and Park maintained by Hannah Cole DAR (Route 5 and E) near Bellair ​ CIVIL WAR SITES Civil War sites and markers (see list and description at the end of the Civil War website section ) Hannah Cole Fort Area and 1st Battle of Boonville Site, Rural Boonville, June 17, 1861 DNR Marker at Missouri Correctional Center the first land battle of the Civil War in Missouri DNR marker at Lyon’s Park in Pilot Grove - July 1861 , Also raid by ”Bloody Bill” Anderson Marker at Thespian Hall – Second Battle of Boonville Sunset Hill Cemetery Boonville – mass grave of 8 Union soldiers Wilkin’s Bridge near Billingsville General J.O. Shelby and General Sanborn violent battle October 1864 Otterville Trenches – December 1861 – May 1865

  • About CCHS

    ABOUT CCHS First CCHS Center Current CCHS Center OUR MISSION The Cooper County Historical Society is a nonprofit 501© (3) organization, founded in 1990, with a focus on collecting and preserving documents, records, historical books and other historical information on Cooper County. We have a free research library, manned by volunteers, to assist the public in finding the information that they are seeking. We also provide four historically related programs to the public each year at no charge. Visit us on Cooper County Historical Society | Pilot Grove MO | Facebook for upcoming programs or you can click on the EVENTS tab. ​ We are funded by the proceeds of membership dues, garage sales, donations and memorials. ​ Cooper County Historical Society Board of Directors: ​ President Vice President Vicki McCarrell Secretary Marla Stretz Treasurer Jenny Alpers Newsletter Ray Owens Members: Carol Norman Carolyn Aggeler Bob Painter Annick Streck Ann Fray Fundraiser chairperson: Pam Shipman Immediate Past President Barbara Dahl Web Developers: Lisa Moody Laci Scott ​ Contact Information: Cooper County Historical Society (CCHS) 111 Roe Street Pilot Grove, MO 660-834-3582 Hours: May through September Friday 9:00 a.m.-12:00 p.m. or by email appointment E-mail: Find us on Facebook ​ Become a Member Yearly Dues One person $15 Family $25 Student $7 HISTORY OF CCHS Article by: Jeanette Heaton In 1990, a few people started talking about the need for a countywide historical society. Winky Friedrichs invited a small group to her home to discuss organizing a society. It was decided to meet on September 10, 1990 in the New Lebanon 1860 church and invite everyone that might be interested. Over 50 people attended the meeting. Mr. Harold Jones served as moderator and Jeanette Heaton welcomed the group and gave a brief history of New Lebanon. Mr. Woody Fleck, from the South Howard County Historical Society, gave advice and suggestions on starting a historical society. Mary Ann Kempf spoke of her interest in recording cemeteries. Ann Betteridge indicated that she was working on a historical workbook for school children to teach them about Cooper County history. Winky Friedriches expressed her hope to see the new society promote tourism in Cooper County and be a part of the county-wide celebration of Cooper County’s 175th anniversary in 1993. ​ All those who attended the meeting were enthusiastic about organizing, so officers were elected and dues set. By the end of that year we had 75 members, and after a few years the membership reached 150. ​ I was honored to be elected President, and needless to say, I had my work cut out for me. Many forms had to be filled out to become a non-profit organization as well as getting the state tax exemption status. We set up bylaws and committees and all the other things that go along with organizing the historical society. ​ One of our wisest decisions was to have the monthly meetings in churches or historical buildings throughout Cooper County. I served as President of CCHS off and on for 12 years and will always be proud of the accomplishments that our society achieved. ​ The Cooper County Historical Society and the New Lebanon Preservation Society sponsored yearly festivals and programs for the general public from 1990 to 2019. Thank you for visiting our website. If you have any comments, suggestions, clarifications, improvements or other "Cooper County Treasures" for us to research and add to our content, please email us at:

  • Historical Society | Cooper County Historical Society | Pilot Grove

    WELCOME! This website has been newly expanded by volunteers from the Cooper County Historical Society, county residents, and volunteers from other historical groups from the Boonslick area. O ur goal is to preserve as much of Cooper County’s early history as possible - online, in one place, for future generations to come! Other Historical groups that have contributed to this website are: Friends of Historic Boonville, River, Rails & Trails Museum, South Howard County Historical Society, Boonslick Historical Society, Arrow Rock State Historic Site, and the Boonslick Road Association. ​ Each of these groups share the same goal of preserving the area’s history, but each has a different focus on what is collected – yet each group preserves several different areas of information. We complement each other’s historical research and resources beautifully. Click here for more information about our volunteers and developers. A FEW ICONIC MONUMENTS Katy Depot Roslyn Heights Hannah Cole Statue Barn Quilt Katy Bridge Thespian Hall Photos from the collections of Wayne Lammers and Edward Lang THANK YOU, HANNAH COLE ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ Picture of the Hannah Cole statue ​ ​ Prior to the coming of the Cole families, what would someday become Cooper County was explored by several early explorers starting with Charles Ravensway in 1658, Daniel Boone in 1799 and later Lewis and Clark in 1803-1804 after Missouri became a state. The area was already well known to fur traders. Hannah Allison Cole must have been a very adventuresome, determined, courageous and hardy woman. She was a widow, and almost 50, when she crossed the Missouri River in something similar to a large canoe, called a “dugout” or “pirogue.” She was accompanied by her nine children, her beloved slave Lucy, her sister Phoebe, and Stephan, her husband, and their five children. That’s 18 people in a hollowed-out log, which was usually 15 to 18 feet long. The pirogue or dugout would usually be maneuvered through the water by men using long poles. Although explorers and trappers visited what was to become Missouri in the 1600’s and later, the Coles were the first white families to settle on the South side of the Missouri River. When the family crossed the Missouri River, just before Christmas in 1810, the river was swift and full of ice. Evidently, the men made two trips across the river, the first to carry the women and children to their planned destination, plus swim their stock across the river. The second, to retrieve supplies and provisions that could not fit in the boat on the first trip across the river. That second trip also included dismantling their wagon and bringing it, and probably tools and seeds to the other side of the river. However, the day after they made their initial trip across the river, there was an violent storm. Due to the raging river and ice, the men had to wait eleven days before they could retrieve their wagon and supplies. As the family probably had no little or food with them in the dugout, all they had to eat were acorns, slippery elm bark and one wild turkey. Due to the bad weather, game would have been hard to find, and since it was December, most of the acorns would be gone. That must have been very disheartening for the 18 members of the family. Yet, they all survived! Hannah’s family constructed a small cabin near the river’s edge just up from where Boonville is located today. They lived peacefully for a year or so until there was an Indian uprising, encouraged by the British, known today as the War of 1812 (Yes, the same war when we fought the British and they burned Washington). By this time there were other hardy souls who had crossed the river for a new life in the newly opened territory. Later, for protection, a fort was built on a rocky, very steep bluff that jutted out almost to the river. Looking at the property today, which is still very heavily wooded, you will wonder “how in the world, did they get up there,” as the location had to be reached by climbing through the dense, almost vertical virgin forest and then down a very steep forested hill. Hannah must have been a very giving person who really loved people. During the Indian uprising she invited other families to stay in her fort, providing them a safe place to live. She eventually found teachers to provide education for the children, and preachers to provide hope and inspiration to everyone. The fort had many other uses after the War. Click here for more information. ​ By Barbara Dahl, Editor

  • Events & Programs | Cooper County Historical Society

    EVENTS & PROGRAMS No scheduled events Plant & bake sale. 9:00 -12;00 * * CCHS Headquarters Program Dicks Mill * 2:00 * Hopewell Rd., 1/2 mile south of where Hwy T turns to gravel, Cotton, MO SE Cooper County No scheduled events No scheduled events * Program 2:00 * Subject & Location to be announced No scheduled events No scheduled events * Christmas Program 2:00 * Location to be announced

  • EARLY EXPLORERS | Cooper County Historical Society

    EARLY EXPLORERS (1658) was the date given by local historian, Charles van Ravenswaay, for the first visit by white men to this area. He believed this honor belonged to Pierre Radisson, a French Canadian, and his brother-in-law, Medard Chouart, Sieur des Grosselliers. Radisson wrote in his journal that he had been where the great river (the Mississippi) divided itself. The river was called the “Forked,” because it had two branches: one towards the west, the other towards the north. They went up the Missouri, or the west fork as they knew it. (1673) Father Pierre Marquette and Louis Joliet became the first Europeans to record seeing the Missouri River. “As we were gently sailing down the still, clear water, we heard a noise of a rapid into which we were about to fall. I have seen nothing more frightful, a mass of large trees entire with branches, real floating islands came from Pekitanoui [Missouri River], so impetuous that we could not without great danger expose ourselves to pass across. The agitation was so great that the water was all muddy, and could not get clear. The Pekitanoui is a considerable river coming from the northwest and empties into the Mississippi. Many towns are located on this river and I hope to make the discovery of the Vermilion or California Sea [Pacific Ocean].” ​ Pekitanoui in the language of Marquette’s Peoria Indian guides meant “Great Muddy.” However the two explorers did not venture up its turbid waters. The next European to record the Missouri was Robert Sieur de la Salle. He claimed the drainage of the Mississippi River for France. He passed the mouth of the Missouri River on September 1, 1682 . He did not ascend the river but wrote that its “water is always thick and to which our Indians did not forget to offer sacrifice.” The “sacrifice” would have been a gift of tobacco placed in the water to placate a water spirit, the Underwater Panther. It was plea for the Underwater Panther to allow them to pass peacefully and not pull them into the river to drown. In 1683 , LaSalle wrote that two Frenchmen had been captured by the Missouria tribe and had been living in their villages since 1680 or 1681. In May or June of 1683, two unnamed French traders accompanied by Kaskaskia (Iliniwek) Indians visited the Missouria and Osage, with the goal of establishing peace and trade. It seems likely that these men or the ones recorded by LaSalle were the origin of the Osage tradition about meeting white men for the first time. The last mention of the Missouri River in the 17th century was by Father Jerome St. Cosme in 1698. He sought native converts to Catholicism but said little about the river itself. In 1700 an unidentified writer told Governor Iberville in the capital of Biloxi that the land west of the Mississippi beyond three or four leagues (10-15 miles) was unknown. Pierre-Charles Le Sueur reported that on the Missouri River there were tin and lead mines. He also described the Missouria tribe as the first people to be encountered when going upriver. Father Marest of the Kaskaskia mission in the Illinois Country also described in 1700 the Kaw, Pawnee, Otoe and Ioway tribes along the Missouri and said that they all had Spanish horses. However neither man had been on the Missouri River. Rather they got these reports from Indians visiting trade centers in Illinois. In 1702 Father Marc Bergier in Illinois asked for permission to establish a mission among the Pawnee and Kaw on the Missouri River. He wanted to go to them because the “Osage were too numerous and the Missouria were reduced to nothing.” It is possible he was referring to one the first of many smallpox epidemics that began reducing the Missouria who were described as “once the most powerful nation on the Missouri River.” The Osage said that the Missouria were too friendly with the French and as a result the weluschka, Little Mystery Men, living inside the white men caused many Missouria to sicken and die. In 1703 Governor Iberville reported that a party of 20 Canadians departed Cahokia intent on reaching New Mexico via the Missouri River. The commonly held belief was that the headwaters of the Missouri formed near the silver mines north of Santa Fe, New Mexico. On September 6, 1704 Governor Bienville reported that parties of French-Canadian traders were traveling on the Mississippi and Missouria in bands of seven or eight. Undoubtedly, courier des bois (woods runners) had been on the Missouri for years to hunt or trade with Indians. However, these people were illiterate and their activities were often unknown to the territorial government. The first definite and detailed exploration of the Missouri was by Etienne Veniard de Bourgmont in 1714 . Bourgmont married into the Missouria tribe and also lived for a period with the Osage. A map produced in 1717 from Bourgmont’s notes presented a reasonably accurate map of the Missouri from its mouth to the mouth of the Platte River in Nebraska. Groups of French-Canadian hunters and traders continued pressing further upriver each year. By the time the French secretly surrendered Louisiana to Spain in 1762 , the Missouri River as far as the Niobrara River in Nebraska, was well known to traders from St. Louis. Spain on the other hand was slow to press any further exploration of the Missouri River. In the meantime British traders from Hudson Bay and the Northwest Company began trading with the Mandan and Hidatsa in North Dakota. Spanish officials formed the “Missouri Company” to counter British activities on the Missouri River. Jean Baptiste Truteau was commissioned to explore the river and establish a trading post for the Mandan. He got underway in the spring of 1794, but was robbed of his trade goods by the Teton Lakota (Sioux) and did not return to St. Louis until 1796 . In 1795 another expedition departed St. Louis under the leadership of a man named Lecuyer, to support Truteau. Lecuyer stopped at a Ponca village near the mouth of the Niobrara River where he took up residence and at least two wives. It was reported that he “wasted a great deal of the goods of the Company." James Mackay, a Scotsman had traded with the Mandan as early as 1787. He became disaffected with the British and became a citizen of Spanish Louisiana in 1793 . He and John T. Evans were commissioned to proceed up the Missouri, make allies with Indian nations, expel the British and find a route to the Pacific Ocean. They departed in August of 1795 with thirty men and four pirogues with trade goods for the Arikara, Sioux, and Mandan. The built a small fort at the Otoe village and made an alliance with the Omaha, where they built Fort Charles. After spending the winter with the Omaha, Evans proceeded to the Mandan in June of 1796 but was delayed by the Arikara. He took possession of a British fort in June and raised the Spanish flag in the Mandan village. However his trade goods were low and the British traders undermined his efforts with a large supply of superior trade goods. Mackay and Evans returned to St. Louis in the summer of 1797 . Although their mission failed to establish a strong Spanish presence on the upper Missouri River, their journals, tables of physical features and maps from their expedition would be of great benefit to the Lewis and Clark Expedition seven years later. Meriwether Lewis and William Clark are noted for their exploration from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. President Jefferson requested funding to explore Louisiana in January of 1803 , before Napoleon even offered to sell the territory. After the U.S. acquired the territory on April 3, 1803, impetus was added to the need for an expedition to explore the new land. Jefferson’s appointed his secretary, Meriwether Lewis, and Lewis’s friend William Clark, to lead the expedition. Their mission was to meet and inform Indian nations along the way, of America’s ownership of the territory and also search for a water route to the Pacific Coast, the fabled “Northwest Passage.” They were also to record the plant, animal and geologic features they encountered. They traded and explored along the Missouri River. This area was becoming fairly familiar to whites by 1800. The voyages of exploration were about to come to an end. ​ (1804) The Corps of Discovery, led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, leaves St. Louis up the Missouri River to find a trading route to the Pacific (Courtesy of Missouri Bicentennial Timeline) ​ “The Corps of Discovery, led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, leaves St. Louis in a 55-foot keelboat to begin an epic two-year journey westward up the Missouri River to reach the Pacific Ocean near present-day Astoria, Oregon. Among the crew members was Shoshone Indian and translator Sacagawea joined the corps at the Hidatsa villages during the winter of 1804-1805 while she was six months pregnant and gave birth along the way. She was familiar with the terrain having grown up in the region of the Rocky Mountains. Sacagawea was one of the wives to a French-Canadian fur trader, who was a member of the crew. U.S. President Thomas Jefferson commissioned the expedition to explore the Missouri River, make diplomatic contact with Indians, expand the American fur trade, and locate the Northwest Passage - a then hypothetical northwestern water route to the Pacific Ocean.” ​ LEWIS and CLARK’s expedition was commissioned by the U.S. Government in 1804 to explore the upper Missouri and search for its source. Additionally, the U.S. had just acquired the Huge Louisiana Territory, and didn’t know what they had. While the official reason for the expedition was to explore the upper Missouri River, President Jefferson secretly hoped they would find a river route to the Pacific. ​ On June 6, 1804 they arrived near the mouth of Moniteau Creek. Nearby they observed the bluff was covered with pictographs (paintings) done by American Indians. This place was infested with rattlesnakes, making a closer look dangerous. They camped for the night of June 7, near the mouth of the Bonne Femme River. They crossed the Lamine River on June 8th and Clark wrote that the river was navigable for 80 to 90 miles. They camped for the night on “Island of Mills” later known as Arrow Rock Island. On the 9th, they passed the Arrow Rock bluff. The expedition returned in 1806, camping on September 18th on the north side of the river opposite the mouth of the Lamine. On their expedition, they camped for the night of June 7, 1804 , near where the Bonne Femme flows into the Missouri River on the north side. When they arrived at the mouth of Moniteau Creek, they found a point of rocks covered with strange hieroglyphic paintings that deeply aroused their interest. This place was infested with a large number of rattlesnakes, making a closer look dangerous and almost impossible. As they traveled further up the river, they arrived at the mouth of the Lamine on June 8th. On the 9th, they reached what is now Arrow Rock. On their return trip in 1806, they passed the present sites of Boonville and Franklin. This area was becoming fairly familiar to whites by 1800. The voyages of exploration were about to come to an end. ​ References : Lewis & Clark National Historic Trail Arrow Rock State Historic Site Lewis and Clark Expedition - excellent information and maps John James Audubon (1785 – 1851) was a naturalist, ornithologist and painter. He combined his interests and planned to make a complete pictorial record of all bird species in North America. In the course of collecting and illustrating birds, he is credited with discovering 25 new species. In 1804 he became the first person to band birds to study their movements and nesting patterns. Audubon was working in southeast Missouri when the New Madrid earthquake struck in 1811, but his residence survived the general destruction. During his wanderings in Missouri and Arkansas, he fell in with hunting parties of Osage and Shawnee Indians learning about local wildlife from them. In 1843, he journeyed up the Missouri River and arrived in Cooper County on March 29: ​ “We were off at five this rainy morning, and at 9 A.M. reached Boonville distant from St. Louis about 204 miles. We bought at this place an axe, a saw, three files, and some wafers; also some chickens, at one dollar a dozen. We found here some of the Santa Fe traders with whom we had crossed the Alleghenies. They were awaiting the arrival of their goods, and then would immediately start”. ​ Audubon cared about the animals and plants he studied. He published Birds of America between 1827 and 1838 containing prints of 435 species of birds that he painted. Original editions of his prints are collector’s items and his works are still used for reference. In 1905 , the Audubon Society became the first conservation organization in North America. Today it has about 300 branches and clubs. ​ Adapted from “Discover Cooper County by Looking Back” by Ann Betteridge

  • FIRST PERMANENT SETTLERS | Cooper County Historical Society

    FIRST PERMANENT SETTLERS The name of the first white man who set foot on the territory that is now the State of Missouri is not known, nor is it known at what period the first settlements were made. It is thought that the first settlements were made in the autumn of 1735 by the French at Saint Genevieve. ​ Daniel Boone was 65 years old when he walked to Missouri from Kentucky in 1799. He settled in the Femme Osage country near St. Charles and spent his last 21 years in Missouri. However, Boone never lived in the area that is known today as Cooper County. ​ On one of his hunting expeditions, Boone came into Howard County and discovered a salt spring about eight miles northwest of New Franklin. Daniel Boone’s sons established a salt works at this location. The area soon came to be known as “Boone’s Lick” and from that the whole region took its name. Hannah Cole Monument at Laura Speed Elliott School Hannah Cole s tatue and the b usts of influential Boonville citizens in the background. ​ Morgan Street Park - Located at the corner of Main and Morgan Streets. ​ November 6, 2005 by Wayne Lammers Wayne Lammers holding one of Hannah Cole's sons flintlock rifle, standing beside the Hannah Cole statue at Main and Morgan Streets DANIEL BOONE It has been written that Daniel Boone visited his first cousin, Stephen Cole, and Hannah Cole, widow of Stephen’s brother, William T. Cole, at the Cole's’ fort. The fort was located where the present Boonville is today. Boone died in 1820 at his home in what is now Marthasville, at the age of 86. References: In 1805 Daniel Boone, who then lived near St. Charles, discovered the Boone’s Lick Salt Springs, in Howard County, thirteen miles from Boonville, where Nathan and David Boone, his sons, settled and made salt from 1806 to 1810. This seems to have been the earliest settlement in Central Missouri, and from it an indefinite region, from St. Charles westward, on both sides of the river, was called the ‘Boone’s Lick Country.’ Other settlers followed, and as early as 1810 a small community had built and occupied Kincaid’s Fort, a few hundred yards up the river from the present site of Old Franklin (directly opposite Boonville) , while another was established in Cooper’s Fort. Boone died in 1820 at his home in what is now Marthasville, at the age of 86. ​ A direct descendant of Boone gave her opinions on these books on Boone, along with her critiques of them. Most can probably be found in state libraries or on Amazon, but some may only the available from a "used" book seller. ​ Biographical Memoir of Daniel Boone by Timothy Flint. (This was written during Boone's life time --1833 and was sold as non-fiction when in fact is almost all fiction, and Daniel was very unhappy with the way it was written. ​ Daniel Boone (The life and legend of an American Pioneer) by John Mack Faragher. This is fairly accurate book but not an easy read. My Father Daniel Boone--This is from the Draper Interviews with Nathan Boone (Daniel's youngest son) and edited by Neal O. Hammon. The Draper Interviews are believed to be very accurate and this is after all from the memory of Daniel's youngest son. Because the Draper Interviews are difficult reading and written in an "old time" style, Mr. Hammon has tried to clarify some of the language. ​ Boone A Biography by Robert Morgan. I really like this book. It is over 450 pages but I found it to be an easy read. “The writer has obviously done a lot of research and I felt I had a better understanding of Daniel after I read this book.” Norma Johnson. ​ EARLY LAND OWNERS Joseph Marie settled upon land in Franklin township, Howard County in 1800 . The land was sold on April 13, 1816 , to Asa Morgan in the first deed recorded in Howard County. Morgan, an early resident of Howard County, and Charles Lucas, a St. Louis resident, laid out the town of Boonville on August 1, 1817. ​ Ira P. Nash was granted land in Howard County in 1800 . He came to the site in February, 1804, remained a month and went home. In July of the same year, Nash and four others returned and surveyed, but did not stay. ​ ​ THE COLE FAMILY - FIRST PERMANENT SETTLERS IN COOPER COUNTY Stephen Cole and William Temple Cole were born in New River, Virginia. They married sisters with the last name of Allison, and moved to Cumberland, Kentucky. In 1807, they came to Upper Louisiana Territory, and settled on Loutre Island, across the river from the present-day town in Hermann, Missouri, about the same time that the Coopers settled on that island. In 1810, a band of Indians stole seven horses from the Loutre Island settlers. The Cole brothers were among the volunteers that pursued the Indians. Two days into the pursuit the volunteers, while sleeping, were ambushed by Indians. William Cole and others were killed. It is written that Stephen Cole killed four Indians, wounded a fifth, and sustained 26 wounds before he escaped and found his way back to Loutre Island. A month later, Hannah Cole, widowed and almost 50, and her nine children, plus Stephen Cole, his wife Phoebe, and their five children, accompanied a group of men, led by Benjamin Cooper, on an overland Journey into the wilderness. The group arrived at a point just upriver from the present town of Boonville on the north side of the Missouri River. The Coopers decided to settle there; however, the two Cole families decided to cross the Missouri River to the south side and build their cabins on the east edge of what would later become Boonville. The families of Hannah Cole and Stephen and Phoebe Cole settled in what is now Cooper County in 1810 . At that time there were no other white Americans living in Missouri west of Franklin and south of the Missouri River. The families that settled north of the Missouri, were the Cole's nearest white neighbors, but most of these were two or three miles distant. The seventeen members of the Hannah Cole and Stephen Cole families made the first settlement in what is now Cooper County. ​ The Coles lived for nearly two years with their closest neighbors across the Missouri River. Some of their activities included raising corn crops and tending them with a cow hitched up to a plow. In the fall and winter of 1812 other families settled nearby on the south side of the river. ​ The first shelter they built was a cabin built of round logs notched together at the corners, ribbed with poles, and covered with boards split from trees. The one room cabin had a fireplace, puncheon floors, a clapboard door, a window, sometimes covered with greased paper, and furniture made from trees. Artist's Conception of Hannah Cole's Fort This is not the Cole Fort, as that fort was constructed in 1812-1813. This a later building built on the solid rock bluff and was also easy to defend. Barn with windlass Bluff reduced for two sets of rails in late 1870's Here is believed to be a very early photo of the stone outcropping where Hannah Cole’s Fort was located in the early 1800's in east Boonville. This image was taken by early photographer James McCurdie in the 1870's. Years later, the Boonville rock quarry would be located in that area, when the Missouri Pacific RR constructed the rails on the River Route down to Jefferson City. This railroad company had to blast away and remove much of this outcropping for the rails to continue down river. ​ Note: The windlass to the left of the barn on top of the outcropping reaching down to the water's edge, was to supply water for the people and animals up on top. The early settlers had a similar windlass to supply water for those inside the fort that allowed them to be able to withstand the attacks of the Indians during the War of 1812. When these pictures were taken, Hannah Cole no longer lived in the old fort, as she moved farther into central Cooper County in the early 1840s and died in 1843. It is unknown at this time, who lived in the old fort after the Coles left. There does not seem to be a lot of information available about Hannah Cole. The same facts seem to be repeated over and over on various documents. However, Hannah must have been an excellent and generous leader. She opened her fort to her neighbors who were seeking safety during the buildup to and during the War of 1812. She made provisions for the children in her fort to receive an education and arranged for religious services to be conducted at the fort as early as 1811. She was evidently interested in politics and her fort was the location of the first County Seat of Howard County. The first circuit, county, and probate sessions were held there in 1816 and it was a polling place in the election of 1819. Her fort also served, at one time, as a community center, post office, hospital and a place for hunters to cast bullets for their flintlocks. ​ In 1817 her fort became the first school house, although it is known that children in the fort were also taught during the war. She also was a business woman who was granted a license for a ferry on the Missouri River, which was operated by her sons. Reference: 1998 Wm. D. Lay In 1843, Hannah moved 13 miles south of Boonville from her fort on the bluff overlooking the Missouri River to a cabin where she lived with Lucy, her beloved slave. She died in 1843 at the age of 79, and is buried in Briscoe Cemetery near Bunceton. ​ Sadly, very little information is available about Hannah’s sister Phoebe, and brother-in-law Stephen Cole and their family. We know that the two families traveled together to Missouri and were the first white Americans to settle on the south side of the Missouri River. Stephen supervised the building of Hannah’s and his own fort. Stephen died near Santa Fe, New Mexico when attacked by Indians. He and Hannah Cole's son (his nephew), were journeying down the Santa Fe Trail in about 1822. We do not know if there is a marked grave. Phoebe died in 1825 in Cole County, but no more information is available on her passing or her grave. We do know that some of the Cole family went to Southern Missouri. ​ These three early settlers and their children must also have been very courageous and strong of character to venture into the unknown and make their home here. We are grateful that they did! - Barbara Dahl, Editor ​ References: Bicentennial Boonslick History p 12-13 Cole Family Records Discover Cooper County by Ann Betteridge Talk by Bob Priddy for Cole Reunion August 9, 2020 Cole Family Association Facebook Cole Family Mysteries Cole Family Reunion, August 9, 2020 Talk given by Bob Pritty Cooper County was named after Sarshell Cooper, a relative of Steven Cole, (Hannah’s husband) and a well-known and greatly admired frontiersman, Indian fighter and War of 1812 hero. He was a friend of the Cole family and is the one who originally showed the Coles the best place to cross the Missouri River. We may wonder why Cooper County was not named Cole County, honoring the first white family to set foot on the South side of the Missouri River. Possibly, a reason may have been that Hannah Cole, the leader of the group, was a woman, and in the 1800’s, women were not credited as leaders or founders of anything. But, honoring Sarshell Cooper was a wonderful way to recognize a true American hero who was well known in the area. There is a Cole County in Missouri, which was established November 16, 1820, and named after Stephen Cole, Hannah’s brother-in-law. He was a lawyer, originally from Virginia. He was also a Justice of the Peace in Missouri, and laid out the original Howard County seat in Franklin, and a member of the Legislature. He was highly regarded in Missouri. He was an early trader on the Santa Fe trail and he and his nephew, also named Stephen Cole, were killed by Navajo Indians near Albuquerque, New Mexico. Cole County is the site of the State Capitol of Missouri. Source: Bob Priddy ​ ​ Mike Dickey wrote the following after reading Mr. Priddy's talk: I would advocate that Bob’s Priddy's article be posted in total if possible on the section of the Cole family/Cole Fort. It is about the best detective work regarding the Cole dilemma that I have seen. Something Bob Priddy said is key to interpreting the whole Territorial – War of 1812 period: “oral history, while valuable, can be flawed.” It is extremely difficult to tie down many events and family histories during this period. Governor Lewis ordered the Coopers out of the Boonslick in 1808 because it was still un-ceded Indian territory. ​ From the federal governments point of view, the Boonslick would now be open for settlement regardless of claims to the region by the Sac & Fox and Ioway. I have not checked the Missouri Gazette for an announcement of the ratification, but it is quite possible that it was several weeks before the news made it to St. Louis and then Loutre Island. Thus, a move by the Cole family from the Loutre settlement to the Boonslick in July or later of 1810 would make far more sense than February 1810 (not to mention the weather). The Osage signed the land cession treaty on November 10, 1808. Congress ratified the treaty April 28, 1810.

  • MAJOR MISSOURI/COOPER COUNTY EVENTS | Cooper County Historical Society

    MAJOR MISSOURI/COOPER COUNTY EVENTS 1874-1993 Map of Missouri showing cropland devastation by the Rocky Mountain locust plagues of 1866 and 1874, State Historical Society of Missouri Map Collection. (1874) “The GRASSHOPPER PLAGUE” began in western Missouri as the first swarms of locusts from the Rocky Mountains traveled eastward eating everything in its path. (Courtesy of the Missouri Bicentennial Timeline) “Small flying grasshoppers, known as Rocky Mountain locust, hatched in an unusually large number in the spring and by the summer of 1874 , the locusts began their travel eastward in search of food. Kansas and Nebraska were their first stops and heavily hit, devouring crops in large swaths stretching from the interior of Canada to the southern border of Texas, including the western regions of Minnesota, Iowa and Missouri. The following spring of 1875 , trillions of the locusts hatched, a number unseen since that time. The large swarms continued until 1877 , causing an estimated $200 million in crop damage. Not only did the locusts eat crops, it ate leather, wood, sheep’s wool, and reportedly the clothes off a person’s back! Vivid firsthand accounts told of the clouds that hailed grasshoppers, falling to the ground like snowflakes. Missouri offered $1 a bushel for locusts collected in March in an effort to stop the insects from multiplying. Later, farmers planted more resilient crops such as winter wheat that matured in the early summer before the migration of locusts. It’s uncertain what led to the end of the plague, but researchers have studied and theorized what caused this fortunate mass extinction of the Rocky Mountain locust.” ​ (1896) JESSE JAMES TTRAIN ROBBERY. The infamous James train robbery at Otterville on July 7, 1896 received little newspaper attention since it was at the same time as the battle of Little Big Horn out west. Keith Daleen, a Civil War reenactor and historian, has researched the eight robbers who boarded the stalled train at Rocky Cut, robbed the passengers and the railroad safe, and disappeared to divide the loot at Flat Creek. They netted about $15,000 from the robbery, a nice sum in those days. Their names were Jesse and Frank James, Cole and Bob Younger, Clell Miller, Charlie Pitts, Bill Caldwell (aka William Stiles) and Hobbs Kerry. ​ Jesse had many friends in the Otterville area and would hide out in an old building on the edge of town when he came to Otterville. So, the gang was very familiar with the area and the best escape routes. ​ Frank James was jailed for a very short time in the Cooper County jail, but was released on bond. Kerry was the only one convicted and jailed. The others were later convicted of robbing the Northfield Bank in Minnesota and were known then as the James/Younger Gang. Later, the others were convicted of robbing the Northfield Bank and jailed. There is a descriptive marker at “Robber Cut” at the Brownfield Roadside Park on old Route 50 overlooking the place where the robbery occurred. You might like to take a video “tour” of the old Cooper County Jail and see the luxurious accommodations that Frank and Hobs Kerry enjoyed as a guest. Historic Cooper County Jail - YouTube Marie Oliver Watkins stands behind the original Missouri flag that she designed, 1943 circa, (P1103) State Historical Society of Missouri. (1913) The OFFICIAL MISSOURI STATE FLAG designed by Marie Watkins Oliver, was signed into law. (Courtesy of Missouri Bicentennial Timeline) In 1908 , the Daughters of the American Revolution appointed Marie Watkins Oliver chairperson of the committee to design a flag for Missouri. Oliver gathered information about how other states had designed their flags and began work on a design centered on the Missouri coat of arms signifying Missouri's independence as a state. The blue stripe in the flag represented vigilance, permanency and justice. The red striped represented valor and the white stripe represented purity. Oliver asked Mary Kochtitzy, an artist from Cape Girardeau, to paint the flag on paper for a State Capitol viewing in 1908 . The bill to make the flag official failed to pass twice because of a competing design. After the Missouri State Capitol fire of 1911 destroyed Oliver’s original sample, a second flag made of silk was completed and Governor Elliott Woolfolk Major signed the bill to make Oliver’s design the official state flag. The Missouri State Flag. Adopted by State Legislature State Seal Sheriff John Grothe and Deputy James Morton with captured moonshine still in St. Charles, 1924, (S1083) State Historical Society of Missouri. (1920 - 1933) PROHIBITION era begins across the U.S. affecting many of the German immigrant-owned beer companies in Missouri(Courtesy of Missouri Bicentennial Timeline) “Beginning in 1882 , Missouri counties and towns passed local option laws to turn communities dry. By World War I, over 90 of the state’s 114 counties were dry through these laws. On January 16, 1919 , Missouri ratified what would become the 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution, which banned the manufacture and sale of alcohol. Under the 18th Amendment and the Volstead Act, Missouri's flourishing alcohol and wine industry took a significant step back, particularly German-immigrant owned breweries. After a decade of inefficient enforcement, and with the deepening of the Great Depression, the 21st Amendment, which repealed the 18th Amendment, was ratified in 1933 .” ​ Boonville had a very successful brewery, Griessmaier & Roeschel Brewery/Winery, which opened in 1874 and closed in 1878 . After prohibition, another brewery known as the Haas Brewery, operated from 1933-1942 . So Cooper County did not have any “legal” establishments put out of business during prohibition. There is no record about where, or if, County residents obtained “adult beverages” during prohibition. 1929 Stock Market Crash (Courtesy of the Missouri Bicentennial Timeline) St. Louis Soup Kitchen, 1939. Charles Trefts Photographs (P0034) State Historical Society of Missouri. (1929) The stock market crash led to the Great Depression of the 1930s. (Courtesy Missouri Bicentennial Timeline) “The Great Wall Street Crash of 1929 , also known as “Black Thursday,” started in the late Fall of 1929 when share prices on the New York Stock Exchange collapsed. The crash caused an economic downfall throughout the state as Missouri businesses struggled to survive. About 300 Kansas City industrial companies closed by 1933 and other cities and towns across Missouri would suffer from the fallout of the crash. The fallen markets, alone, did not cause the Great Depression. Only 16 percent of Americans were in the market. However, it caused widespread panic that worsened an ongoing recession, it lowered consumer spending, and contributed to the banking crisis”. The “Great Depression” was the worst economic downturn in the history of the industrialized world. It started after the stock market crash in October 1929 when over one million investors were wiped out. ​ Farmers suffered during the Depression from drought, insect swarms and lower farm prices. Many family farms were lost to creditors during this time. This is a good concise explanation of the Depression. Another explanation from The Balance (1937) Missouri voters approved a CONSTITUTIONAL AMMENDMEENT to create the Missouri Conservation Commission. (Courtesy of Missouri Bicentennial Timeline) “On July 1, 1937 , the constitutional amendment creating the Missouri Conservation Commission took effect, creating a politically-appointed, science-based conservation agency with exclusive authority over forests, fish and wildlife. Over the next 75 years, the “Missouri plan” allowed the state agency, Missouri Department of Conservation, to build what is acknowledged as one of the nation’s top conservation programs. Prior to the creation of the commission, Missouri’s forests, fish, and wildlife resources were being quickly depleted in the state”. (1939) CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS (by Elizabeth Davis) FDR’s Alphabet Soup Comes to Boonville Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) was Governor of New York when Black Tuesday hit on October 29, 1929 . The Great Depression followed and lasted the better part of ten years. In 1932 , the Democratic Party talked FDR into being their candidate for President of the United States. In his acceptance speech, he promised the American people a New Deal. Elected by a landslide, FDR took office on March 4, 1933 . Five days later he called the 73rd Congress into emergency session. By the end of the month, Congress had passed the Emergency Conservation Work (ECW) Act and it had been signed into law. On April 5, FDR issued Executive Order 6101 authorizing a program which would become known as the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC). ​ But this was just one of FDR’s New Deal programs to get the unemployed trained and back to work. At the time, twenty-five percent of the population was unemployed. His first program: recruit the young and unemployed, create a peacetime army, and fight to save our nation’s natural resources. On January 21, 1935 , The Emergency Relief Appropriation Act of 1935 was passed by joint resolution and signed by the President on April 8. FDR signed Executive Order 7034 on May 6 of that year which established the Works Progress Administration (WPA). It was renamed the Work Projects Administration (still known as the WPA) in 1939 . ​ Both these programs took the unskilled and unemployed young men of this country, put them to work on public projects, and taught them skills for the future. Because most of the President’s programs became known by their acronyms, they were collectively referred to as FDR’s “alphabet soup”. ​ The CCC Campsite was active in Pilot Grove from 1939-1942 . The CCC program dealt mostly with land and conservation while the WPA put up thousands of public buildings around the country. In 1939 , the WPA came to Boonville. Sumner School was built for the black students in the community. That changed in 1959 when desegregation became law and all students went to the same school. ​ The Emergency Conservation Work (EWC) Act, Senate Bill S.598, was introduced on March 27, passed both houses of Congress and was on Roosevelt’s desk by March 31. Executive Order 6101, dated April 5, authorized the program which would become known as the Civilian Conservation Corps. Robert Fechner was appointed director and an Advisory Council consisting of representatives of the Secretaries of Agriculture, Interior, and War, was created. The first enrollee signed up on April 7, and, ten days after that, the first CCC camp opened. By July 1, over 275,000 men occupied 1,300 camps in all 48 states, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. ​ Single men who were between the ages of 17 and 25, out of school and unemployed were eligible for enrollment. The pay was $30-a-month plus food, clothing, shelter, and medical care. Mandatory monthly allotment checks of $25 were sent to their families. For those who had no family, the funds were held in an account for him until discharged from the program. Communities close to these camps profited as well. They averaged $5,000-a-month additional revenue which saved many small businesses from going under. Almost immediately, two important modifications became necessary. Enlistment was extended to about 14,000 American Indians who were living well below the poverty Level. Over time, the program helped more than 80,000 of them reclaim land that had once been theirs. About 25,000 locally experienced men (LEM) were also authorized to enroll in order to train inexperienced men with axes, shovels, and other skills they needed to perform their jobs. This had the added benefit of allowing the locally unemployed to be eligible for enrollment. ​ On May 11, 1933 , President Roosevelt signed Executive Order 6129 which opened enrollment to about 25,000 Spanish American and World War I veterans with no age or marital restrictions. They performed duties in conservation suited to their age and physical condition. Nearly 250,000 veterans were given belated opportunities to rebuild their lives after serving their country. ​ With unemployment down and World War II just around the corner, CCC was on its last leg. Congress never actually abolished the CCC program; they just stop funding it. CCC officially went out of existence on June 30, 1942. ​ A partial summary of the work accomplished by the CCC between 1933 and 1942 includes: the erection of 3,470 fire towers, construction of 97,000 miles of fire roads, 4,235,000 man-days fighting fires, the planting of more than three billion trees, and the arresting of soil erosion on more than twenty million acres of land. During those eleven years, nearly 3 million men found employment in more than 2,650 camps. ​ While 137 camps are listed in Missouri, it should be noted that Pilot Grove is the only location listed in Cooper County. According to the CCC Legacy website ( ) a camp was established in Pilot Grove on October 17, 1939 . (SCS-34, 3762). However, records indicate that a second CCC camp was established in Pilot Grove on June 30, 1941 . (SCS-38, 1771) ​ Thanks to previous research done by Judy Shields, it appears the first camp was outgrown and a second camp was built either adjourning or close by the first one. When completed, the first camp was closed. When asked, Shields said she had been unable to identify any original buildings from the camp. ​ A bronze plaque has been provided by the Friends of Pilot Grove and was dedicated at Pilot Grove’s City Park by city officials in 2018. ​ HISTORICALLY YOURS, by Liz Davis (Published Jan 31, 2018) (1945) Missouri ratified the state's fourth and current constitution. (Courtesy of the Missouri Bicentennial Timeline) “The first Missouri Constitution was written in only 38 days and was adopted July 19, 1820 . Subsequent drafts were drawn up because of changes related to the state, such as population size and major events like the Civil War. The fourth Missouri Constitutional Convention took place in Jefferson City on September 21, 1943 , and took just over a year before it was approved. Voters ratified the changes made to the Missouri Constitution on February 27, 1945 .” ​ (1984) Missouri voters pass a one-tenth-of-one-percent sales tax to fund state parks and soil and water conservation efforts. (Courtesy of Missouri Bicentennial Timeline) “Missouri had the second highest rate of erosion in the nation and a statewide park system in much need of repair at the time the state sales tax was passed. The tax portion for soil and water conservation measures assist agriculture landowners through voluntary programs developed by the Soil and Water Districts Commission. The other portion of the tax revenue provides most of the budget for operation and development of state parks. The tax has a sunset clause of 10 years, and has been renewed by more than two-thirds majority of Missouri voters since 1984 .” (1990) The first section of the 240-mile Katy Trail along the Missouri River opens at Rocheport for walking and bicycling by the public. (Courtesy of Missouri Bicentennial Timeline) “The Katy Trail is the longest rail-to-trail in the US, running largely along the Missouri River for 240 miles. It was built on the former corridor for the Missouri-Kansas-Texas Railroad and was converted to a walking and bicycle gravel trail by the Missouri Department of Natural Resources with a large donation from Edward D “Ted” and Pat Jones, and supported by a Missouri trail advocacy group. The Katy Trail takes visitors on a journey along part of the trail explored by the Lewis and Clark’s expedition. There are more than two dozen trailheads and four fully-restored railroad depots along the trail, as well as the state’s oldest and beloved Burr Oak “Big Tree” at McBain in Boone County. The Burr Oak was a young tree when Lewis and Clark traveled by it. Construction of the Katy Trail began in 1987 . The first section of trail at Rocheport was opened in 1990 . The trail’s 25th anniversary was celebrated in 2015 .“ ​ Katy Trail history began more than a hundred years ago during the golden age of railroads. In 1865 the Union Pacific Railroad built the Missouri-Kansas-Texas Railroad and established the network as the Southern Branch. The route was also commonly called the KMT, (Kansas, Missouri, Texas) and eventually the Katy. ​ The last KATY train to leave Boonville was in 1986 . Through legislation, land grants, and donations, the first section of the Katy Trail opened near Rocheport in 1990 . Since then, more sections have been added, extending the trail to its current 240 miles. The trail winds through some of the most scenic areas of the state with the majority of the trail closely following the Missouri River. ​ Katy Trail is also part of the American Discovery Trail, and has been designated as a Millennium Legacy Trail, and was added to the Rails-to-Trails Conservancy Hall of Fame in 2008 . ​ (1992) Missouri voters overwhelmingly approved terms limits for state legislators by amending the Missouri Constitution. (Courtesy of Missouri Bicentennial Timeline) The Missouri State Legislative Term Limits, also known as Amendment 12, was on the November 1992 ballot. The law, approved by voters, caps service at eight years (two terms) in the Missouri House. ​ (1993) Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. (Courtesy of Missouri Bicentennial Timeline) “The Great Flood of 1993 destroyed farmland, homes, and other properties through the Midwest with some towns never recovering. In 1992 , the Midwest experienced an unusually wet Fall causing high soil moisture. To make matters worse, the area was hit by persistent storms, sometimes lasting four days at a time. Water began to fill the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers and their tributaries between May through September 1993 , causing major flooding in Missouri, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin, and Illinois. The Great Flood resulted in over 50 deaths and billions of dollars of damage. Crest was 37.10 feet.” (2019 ) Second worst flood of the Missouri River and the longest flooding event in Missouri River history. May 31, 2019 , the Crest was 33.73 feet.

  • COOPER COUNTY IS FORMED | Cooper County Historical Society

    COOPER COUNTY IS FORMED Howard County Has Been Named “The Mother of Counties” Two years after Howard County was organized, there was so much immigration into the southern part of the county that there was a great demand for the division of Howard County and for the formation of another county south of the Missouri River. Because of this demand, the territorial Legislature, on December 17, 1816 , formed the new county of Cooper, which included all of Howard County south of the Missouri River. In 1803, the United States had more than doubled its size with the Louisiana Purchase. The following year, what would one day become the State of Missouri was divided into four districts. On October 1, 1812 , the area was reorganized into five counties and named the Missouri Territory. ​ Although a few changes took place in the Territory between 1813 and 1815 , the biggest change occurred on January 23, 1816 , with the organization of Howard County. Named after Benjamin Howard, the first Governor of the Missouri Territory, Howard County covered more than one-third of the state. It reached all the way to what would become Kansas and Iowa. Howard County would eventually form all or parts of 39 additional counties. Boonville, which was south of the Missouri River across from Franklin, was the county seat. ​ As the population increased south of the river, people began requesting Howard be made into two counties, one on each side of the Missouri River. Finally, after less than three years, Howard was divided. On December 17, 1818 , everything north of the river remained Howard County, and everything south of the river became Cooper County, which was named after Sarshel Cooper and his brother Benjamin, early settlers of the area. ​ The one drawback to the division was the county seat. Boonville was Howard County’s seat of government, but it was on the wrong side of the river. Laid out in 1823 , Fayette became Howard County’s county seat. ​ This territory included what now forms 11 counties and parts of five others. Cooper County was gradually decreased in size by the formation of new counties. By 1845 , the boundaries of Cooper County were as they are today. ​ HISTORICALLY YOURS, by Elizabeth Davis HOW COOPER COUNTY CAME TO BE By Dr. Maryellen H. McVicker The area that is now known as Missouri, was originally divided into 5 counties in 1812 by Territorial Governor William Clark, of the Lewis and Clark Expedition: St. Louis, St. Charles, New Madrid, St. Genevieve, and Cape Girardeau. ​ These 5 counties had their origins in French settlements mostly along the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. On January 13, 1816 , Howard County was created out of portions of St. Louis and St. Charles counties, and eventually encompassed enough land that 39 counties, or approximately 1/3 of the entire state of Missouri, would be formed from the original Howard County territory. Cooper County was one of those counties. It was organized as a separate county on December 17, 1818 . By 1821, Missouri had 25 counties. Eventually there would be 114 counties, and the City of St. Louis. The central Missouri region experienced rapid growth during the first 2 decades of the 19th century. By 1820 , what is now Howard and Cooper Counties, had a population of over 20,000 people, which was about 1/3 of the entire population of the Territory of Missouri. The population of the entire United States was between 9 and 10 million. Now, two hundred years later, over 300 million call the United States their home and approximately 38,000 people live in the two-county region. Cooper County will soon be 200 years old. Cooper County predates statehood. The 1876 Levens and Drake History of Cooper County tells a story about an early county employee: “Sometime during the year 1817 , William Gibson, …was appointed by the Territorial Court constable. …Soon after his appointment, there being some trouble down on the Osage, he was sent there with a warrant for the arrest of a man who had caused the trouble. …As he was on his journey back, and also having an execution against a Man who lived on the road, he stopped at the man’s house and proceeded to levy a tax on the feather beds, as nothing in those days was exempt from levy (taxation—ed.) But, as soon as he made his purpose known, four women, who were the only persons at home, threatened to give him a thrashing, so he was forced to retire as fast as he could, and return with the execution unsatisfied. To add to this, the court only allowed him, for his journey of one hundred and forty miles, which occupied four days, the magnificent sum of twenty-five cents. Mr. Gibson thinking the office not quite lucrative enough to justify him devoting his whole time to its duties, and not wishing to risk his life at the hands of angry women, quietly sent in his resignation…” Some things never change! Notice the size of Howard County compared to Cooper County COUNTIES THAT WERE FORMED FROM COOPER COUNTY Not only were 14 counties formed from Cooper County, many of these counties, in turn, were the parent county to new counties. Cooper County as originally formed comprised the present day counties of Bates (Formed 1841 from Cass County), Benton (Formed 1835 from Pettis County), Camden (Formed 1841 from Benton County), Cass (Formed 1835 from Jackson County), Cole (Formed 1820 from Cooper County), Henry (Formed 1834 from LaFayette County), Jackson (Formed 1826 from LaFayette County), Johnson (Formed 1834 from LaFayette County), LaFayette (Formed 1820 from Cooper County), Miller (Formed 1837 from Cole County), Moniteau (Formed 1845 from Cole and Morgan Counties), Morgan (Formed 1833 from Cooper County), Pettis (Formed 1833 from Cooper and Saline Counties), St. Clair (Formed 1841 from Henry County), and Saline (Formed 1820 from Cooper and Howard Counties). ​ References : Ann Betteridge

  • SUNK ON THE MISSOURI RIVER | Cooper County Historical Society

    SUNK ON THE MISSOURI RIVER The Missouri River was a major highway from St. Louis to the Wild West across Missouri, but the Mighty Mo took a great many steamboats down as they struggled to settle Missouri and points west. The steamboat “Pirate” was one of the earliest steamboats to sink in the Missouri River. Carrying supplies for Joseph N. Nicollet and the Potawatomi Indians displaced from the east, it sank in April 1839 near what is now Bellevue, Nebraska. One of the worst disasters on the Missouri River was the steamboat “Saluda” near Lexington, Missouri. On April 9, 1852, Captain Francis T. Belt, frustrated by the lack of progress in making a difficult bend, ordered an increase in steam pressure. The boilers exploded. Over 100 people were killed, including Captain Belt. The steamboat “Arabia” was a side wheeler built in 1853 near the Monongahela River in Brownsville, Pennsylvania. It was eventually purchased by Captain John Shaw who operated it on the Missouri River. It is currently on display in Kansas City at the Arabia Museum, but plans are to relocate it to another area. Sold to Captain William Terrill and William Boyd, it made more than a dozen trips up and down the Missouri River. On September 5, 1856, it hit a submerged sycamore tree snag and ripped open the hull. It sank on September 5, 1856. The “Bertrand” steamboat was launched in Wheeling, West Virginia, in 1864. On April 1, 1865, the steamboat struck a submerged log in the Desoto Bend of the Missouri River near Omaha, Nebraska. It sank in less than ten minutes. The “USS Naiad” was built as the “Princess” in 1863 at Freedom, Pennsylvania. Purchased by the Navy at Cincinnati, Ohio, it was commissioned on April 3, 1864, as the USS Naiad. Surviving the war, the USS Naiad was decommissioned at Cairo, Illinois on June 30, 1865. Sold at auction on August 17, 1865, the boat was renamed Princess. It sank on June 1, 1868, when it hit a snag at Napoleon, Missouri. These are only a few of the hundreds of steamboats that sank on the Missouri River, most of them remain unrecovered. Source: "Historically Yours", by Elizabeth Davis ​ Other artifacts from the Missouri Packet are on display at the River, Rails and Trails Museum in Boonville. One steam boat was recovered just upstream from Boonville. It was the “Missouri Packet”. The story of the recovery of the Packet, along with many pictures can be found below. ​ ​ RETRIEVING THE MISSOURI PACKET Early excavation and outline of the boat before the digging began Digging the boat out of the sand with heavy equipment (1820) THE SINKING OF THE MISSOURI PACKET AND EXCAVATION FOR IT By Wayne Lammers The PLUNDER of the Missouri Packet Steamboat An1820 Steamboat excavation near the mouth of the Lamine and Missouri Rivers By Wayne Lammers June 2020 ——————————————————————————— Information of the MISSOURI PACKET Steamboat that sank in the Missouri River in May of 1820. From the Missouri Intelligence and Boonslick Advertiser (this newspaper issued its first copy in Franklin MO., on April 23, 1819) Volume #1 Issue #51 May 13, 1820, P. 2 col. 3 ​ “The Steam Boat Missouri Packet arrived at this place [May 5] in a short passage from St. Louis, bound for the Council Bluffs, laden principally with flour and provisions, for the troops at that place. We regret to state, that a few hours after leaving Franklin, she unfortunately sunk. Being, however, near the shore, in low water, it is expected a considerable portion of the cargo will be saved, and the boat raised and repaired so as to proceed on to her destination.” [No further mention of the Missouri Packet in other issues of the Missouri Intelligence and Boon’s Lick Advertiser] This information was given to Wayne Lammers from Robert “Bob” Dyer after we, along with Gene Smith, visited the the excavated site on December, 30. 1987 . ​ For many years I dreamed of working on an archeological site, uncovering history that have been lost to mankind. That dream came to light on December 30, 1987 , when a friend by the name of Gene Smith asked me to video tape the excavation of a steamboat that he and his salvage corporation from Independence Missouri had found in the bottoms of the Missouri River, about eleven miles west of Boonville near the Lamine River. The boat they were searching for, ca1850’, according to the history, had a large amount of gold and silver onboard. ​ My friend Gene Smith of Independence Missouri, found this sunken boat using a Proton Magnetometer that used the principle of earth’s field nuclear magnetic resonance (EFNMR) to register very small variations on the earth’s magnetic field, allowing metal objects, underground, to be detected to the depth of 30 to 50 feet below the surface. In doing this, the salvage corporation can make exploration decisions, with a grid map, to show the variation of the magnetic field below. After the suspected boat is located on this grid, the next process is to use a 4- or 5-inch auger to bore a sample drill into the suspected target. In doing this, some of the boat hull and artifacts will belch out on to the surface of the Missouri River Bottoms. This boat that was dug, was at the depth of about 30 to 35 feet in the middle of a soybean field. ​ (Authors Note:) In 1820 , the sunken boat was located on the southern shore of the Missouri River in Cooper County, on a bend in the river. ​ Over the years the Missouri River changed its course, I believe, because of the sinking of this steamboat and eliminating this bend in the river doing this, there is now part of Cooper County in the Howard County bottoms which exist today, of 385 acres owned by the Jake Huebert family and Central Missouri Properties LLC of Boonville. ​ On the day I arrived at the excavation site, it was a beautiful sunny day, with the temperature in the upper 30’s. Gene Smith and I were in his black pickup truck following Gary Sisk, in his large RV, going to the two-inch snow field excavation site. We were flying down the Missouri River Bottom because of all the snow and didn’t want to stop because we knew we would get stuck in a heart-beat if we did. We arrived at mid-morning to a site that was unbelievable. The midsection of the 120-foot boat was totally missing. This is where the three boilers and firebox were located. I looked off to the side and saw one large cast iron boiler with other parts nearby that was set aside for later removal. On the port side of the bow of the boat, I saw men with shovels, clearing a large cast iron object. I later found out that this was the engine that powered the craft. I started recording with my Olympic video camera and captured the scene. Moments later I was told by Mr. Smith that we had the rest of the day to discover, record and retrieve what we could of the excavation, because the salvage company was going to rebury this historic steamboat forever. My first thought was “NO”, we need to document this ship and its contents in front of us. To a certain extent, this never happened. ​ Gene Smith and I along with his 100-foot survey tape, began measuring the steamboat which measured approximately 120 feet long, 25 feet wide and 5 feet deep. By the time I settled in to the excavation, the salvage crew were removing the lone engine on the port side of the vessel. The lone large backhoe had a large two-inch strap that was raising the engine away from the boat. The engine had a pitman that was about 12 to 15 feet long with a 3/4-inch cast iron plate on both sides - top and bottom of this beam or pitman. This was connected to the paddle wheel cam which powered the boat. In raising the engine high above, I heard a large crunch. This was the breaking of the cam at the end of the pitman. Well, I thought, is this is how they retrieve artifacts from a historic sunken boat? I was shocked, literally shocked, by the irreverence to the methods and manner they pilfered these items on this old boat. My thoughts were, “This isn’t the way it is supposed to be done.” ​ The next thing was to try to find the name of this boat and when it sank. We found no paint on the sides of what was left of the vessel. We knew that there were about 30 to 40 wooden barrels of salted pork along with some empty whiskey barrels onboard the steamboat. A bunghole on the top of the barrel was the only indication of liquid in the empty container. Over the many years, the whiskey leached out and was gone forever. We located the barrels midway on the steamboat covered with sand, in front of where the three boilers were located. With two small shovels and a lot of work we uncovered many barrels. During this process, I noticed that there were no metal rings around each barrel. They were made of wooden rings with no metal at all. Each wooden band was secured to the barrels with small square nails. I knew that the early barrels had wooden rings instead of metal, to hold the contents together. I then had the feeling that we had a much earlier boat than the later 1850 “Money Boat” that the salvage company thought this one was. This “Money Boat” was thought to contain $200,000 in silver and $50,000 in gold coins. In today’s money….we are talking Millions of Dollars. My question was, why would a very early steamboat be caring that much money? Back to the search for the name of the boat. ​ We felt that there may be a stamp on the top of the barrels indicating the location of the shipment of pork. We pressed on and searched for this. We were right. We finally found a barrel top that was marked. Later, my next move, was to research for the origin of this salt cured pork at Chillicothe Ohio. I did some calling and found a person by the name of Brian Hackett, Director of the Ross County Historical Society in Chillicothe. He gave me the information about the Waddle & Davisson Company that was in operation from 1812 to 1824, shipping salt cured pork to early settlements out west including the forts at Council Bluffs Iowa some 950 river miles away from the docks at Chillicothe, Ohio. This is such a significant incite for a remarkable adventure early in the settling of the Great West. ​ Brian Hackett advised that “This is a greater glimpse of what things were like, an unintentional time capsule. Finds like this allow people to have insight about daily lives of those who lived long ago. Covering it was a waste, a loss of significant historical artifacts.” ​ Again, we pressed on with our search. Gary Sisk wanted to search the stern of the boat with his idea of using a two-inch water hose that was supplied by the water pumps that removed the water from the sunken boat area. In digging the boat which was incased with sand and water, this water had to be removed. A system of four to five pumps were needed for this process. The pumps ran 24/7 at a cost of $500 dollars per day in fuel to run the pumps. This water was pumped some 150 yards back to the Missouri River. ​ In this task, of washing the stern of the boat, we uncovered a recessed paddle wheel or bootjack stern-wheeler. This was also an indication of an early boat. I knew from my studies that this is what the early steamers looked like. ​ T he first thing that was found was a pelvic bone. At the time we didn’t know what kind of bone this was. ​ Arthur’s note: Weeks later, I contacted Doctor Wiley McVicker, a veterinarian in Boonville, and he advised that this was a bovine pelvic bone. He couldn’t tell if it were male or female. So, we know that at least one cow was onboard when the ship sank. ​ Again, this was important to me because cattle were not a plentiful item out west at this point in time. ​ ​ River, Rails & Trails Museum in Boonville houses the following: ½ scale model of a keel boat, handmade model of a Keel boat by Eric Owens, many artefacts from the Missouri Packet collected by Wayne Lammers. Oldest artifacts of oldest steam to be excavated on the Missouri River – May 5, 1820 excavated in December 1987. ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ Wayne Lammers with some of his artifacts from the 200 year old shipwreck "The Missouri Packet" that are located at The River, Rails & Trails Museum in Boonville. Excavation of the steamboat, Missouri Packet, December 27, 1987. This is the stern of the boat with the Paddle Wheel at top right. The boat was destroyed by the company that excavated the boat, looking for gold and silver that wasn't onboard this early 1800's boat. Crew unearthing the paddle wheel of the steamboat. This was a very early steamboat made in the early 1800's. This boat will be the earliest steamboat ever excavated on the Missouri River. This boat was a "recessed sternwheeler" or "Boot-Jack" with the paddle wheel up inside the boat. Lobby in the Arabia Museum in Kansas City displaying the steam engine Paddle wheel and the stern of the boat - they dug through the boat. Boiler - one of the boilers - excavated and "carefully" searched for in the boat, with a 6-foot bucket Bob Dyer examining the steam engine Barrel staves from barrels of salt pork and whiskey. Pork was processed in Chillicothe Ohio by Waddel and Davidson Capstan Closeup of the capstan Picture of barrel top and a pork jaw bone Copper tubing (high steam pressure tubing) Artifacts on display at River, Rails and Trails Museum Digging out the steam engine Steam engine from another angle Article from the Missouri Intelligencer & Boonslick Advertiser at Franklin on May 13, 1820. This is the notification of the sinking of the Missouri Packet Steamboat on the Missouri River just west of the Lamine River. The story of the sunken steamboat as the news traveled to Chillicothe Ohio where the 200 year old salted pork came from. Photo by Wayne Lammers who was a small part of the excavation of the Missouri Packet.

  • MISSOURI RIVER AND TRANSPORTATION | Cooper County Historical Society

    MISSOURI RIVER AND TRANSPORTATION Missouri River West of Boonvillle Bridge Wayne Lammers Collection Before the white man traveled up the Missouri River, the Indians had paddled their canoes on it for centuries. Later came the French trappers and explorers in their pirogues, canoes, mackinaws, bateaus and keelboats. At this time, these types of boats were the only means of river transportation. When the first settlers arrived, the main routes of commerce and travel were still the water courses. Neither steamboats nor railroads were available yet. Because transportation was so important, the main settlements were made on the banks of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers. ​ ​ Ferries Hannah Cole and others ​ During the first court on July 8, 1816, at Cole’s Fort, Hannah Cole’s sons were granted a license to run a ferry on the Missouri River between Boonville and Franklin. At the same time B.W. Levens, Ward and Potter, and George W. Cary were also granted a license to keep a ferry across the Missouri at the present site of Overton. The rates charged at the Levens’ ferry were as follows: ​ For man and horse $0.50 For either separately $0.25 For 4 horses and 4-wheeled wagon $2.00 For 2 horses and 4-wheeled carriage $1.00 For horned cattle $0.04 each For polled cattle $.02 each ​ No one seems to remember what the cost to cross the River on the Dorothy was. Later, other ferries were licensed to help travelers cross the “Wide Missouri” River. ​ Until 1924 , when the first Boonville Bridge connecting New Franklin to Boonville was built, one had to take a motorized ferry across the Missouri River to get to Boonville from New Franklin, or go to Howard County from Boonville. The last Ferry to operate was the “Dorothy,” which ceased operating when the Route 40 bridge was finished in 1924. ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ The Dorothy ferry on the Missouri at Boonville. ca 1890's. ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ Dorothy Ferry Boat circa 1918. ​ ​ Source: "Discover Cooper County" by Ann Betteridge. ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ From the Wayne Lammers collection Joseph L. Stephens ferry boat in the 1890s, in front of Boonville In operation until 1924 ​ Front of Stephens Ferry Boat Rocheport Ferry - Cooper County in the background, notice 3 covered wagons and horses. Steam engine moved the paddle wheel. Lamine Ferry 1930's, from the Jim Higbie collection (colorized). Corps of Discovery near Boonville (Keel boat) - a reproduction of the Lewis and Clark boat. The reproduction burned, but was rebuilt 1/2 scale and is in the River, Rails and Trails Museum. Photo by Wayne Lammers The pirogue was a small type of canoe. The canoe was the most commonly used type of boat, and was the simplest of all river crafts. It was usually made from a cottonwood log, hollowed out, and was usually from 15 to 18 feet long. It was generally manned by three men: one to steer and two to paddle. It was used mostly for short trips, though occasionally was employed for long trips. The mackinaw was a flatboat, pointed at both ends, and was from 40 to 50 feet long. It usually had a crew of five men: one steersman and four oarsmen. The bullboat was usually used on shallow streams because of its light draft. It was made of buffalo bull hides sewn together and stretched over a frame of poles, and needed two men to handle it. Keel Boat Jolly Flat Boatsmen by George Caleb Bingham The keelboat was considered the best and largest craft for transportation before the steamboat. It was 60 to 70 feet long, with the keel running from bow to stern. It could carry a larger cargo than any of the other boats mentioned. It was usually poled. Several men at a time pushed long poles into the river bed, and literally pushed the boat upstream. In deep, fast, or rough water, or if other problems caused poling not to work well, the keelboat was then propelled by means of a cordelle. The cordelle was a line practically 1,000 feet long, one end of which was fastened to the top of the 30-foot mast in the center of the boat. It was well-braced from the mast and the rope extended to the shore. At the shore end of the line, some twenty or thirty men walked along the river bank and pulled the boat upstream. Cordelling was extremely difficult and exhausting work, especially when the edge of the river was full of brush, or the banks so soft that they gave way under foot. Sails were used at times, when the wind was right. Many years after the steamboat made its appearance, people continued to use the keelboat. Flatboat and Steam boats on the Missouri River The First Steamboat at Franklin was on May 29, 1819 . The trip of the Independence from St. Louis to Franklin took 13 days (six of which they were grounded on sandbars). Captain John Nelson had charge of the steamboat. The day after the arrival of the Independence a dinner was given by the citizens of Franklin in honor of the occasion. The trip of the Independence from St. Louis to Franklin was the beginning of steamboat traffic upon the Missouri. The development of the steamboat changed the whole process of river transportation, making it possible to travel much faster than previously, and with much larger cargoes, and was one of the chief factors in the development of Boonville and Cooper County. The second steamboat to arrive at Franklin was the Western Engine, one of several steamboats that came up the river in 1819 as part of Major Stephen Long’s “Yellowstone Expedition.” The boat reached Franklin on June 13, 1819 . The design of the Western Engineer was startling. The prow was upturned and carved into the shape of a serpent’s head. By means of a flue, steam could be directed to come out the hinged jaws. It was intended to frighten the Indians, and it did. The real beginning point of commercially feasible steam boating began about 1830 . Because of the rush of immigration at that time, boats could not be built fast enough. ​ ​ Packets on the Missouri River A Packet , or packet boat, is identified by its function rather than by any distinctive vessel type. Historically, packets originated as vessels under contract with the government to carry mail. With this official duty as their primary purpose, packets could be distinguished from any other vessels by their speed and regularity of service on a fixed route, between designated ports. Steam driven packets were used extensively in the 19th century on the Mississippi and Missouri rivers, supplying and bringing personnel to forts and trading posts and carrying freight and passengers. Today, while steamboats are but a distant memory, the Missouri River is alive and well in Missouri. ​ Sources: Elizabeth Davis "Historically Yours", Ann Betteridge "Discover Cooper County" ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ Steamboat "Plow Boy" at Boonville unloading wheat at Boonville Mill. From the Wayne Lammers collection. ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ Steamboat pulled by a tugboat with the Katy bridge in the background. From the Wayne Lammers collection. ​ ​ RIVER TRAFFIC BECAME HEAVY In 1838 , the government began to clear the Missouri River of snags, and river travel became somewhat less hazardous. As the steamboat trade increased, boats became bigger and fancier, changing from the appearance of a floating shack to a floating palace. The Boonville Register of May 20, 1841 , stated “the first boat built in the city of Boonville, is to be launched on Monday, the 24th.” The boat was built under the superintendence of Captain Courtney and was to be called the Warsaw. The “Golden Era” of the Missouri River steam boating was between 1850 and 1860 , and reached its highest prosperity in the year 1858 . There were then not less than sixty packets on the river, besides 30 to 40 transient boats called tramps, which came on the river from other streams and made one or two trips during the season. The packets had regular schedules and carried the United States mail, express, freight, newspapers (both daily and semi-weekly). Their arrival was booked forward to along the Missouri River with a great deal of interest. The discovery of gold in California, and later gold in Montana, caused many people to ride the steamboats on their way west and north. People flocked to the wharves whenever a steamboat arrived. There were so many boats on the lower river during this period that it was a common sight to see as many as five or six lying at the Boonville landing at the same time. These were prosperous days for the river towns. During the boating season, which continued from March to November, there was never a time when a boat wasn’t visible. The Missouri River freezing solid made it impossible to travel by boat during the winter months. The Missouri River was one of the most difficult streams in the United States to navigate because of its shifting channel, its swift current, and its many bends, which, with the many snags, made a continual menace to river traffic. No pilot approached a snag, especially at night, without fear and caution. The average life of a Missouri River steamboat was less than five years. Other problems, such as fires, boiler explosions, and floods as well as low water, also made traveling by steamboat hazardous. A major disaster in this area was the sinking of the El Paso after it hit a snag below Boonville in 1855 . Another period of prosperity were the years 1866 , 1867 , and 1868 . Captain C.H. Kinney, made the sum of $45,000 in profits from one trip. A number of residents in the Boonville area were involved in river trade as owners, captains, or pilots of steamboats. Many made their fortunes on the river. Perhaps the best known was Captain Joseph Kinney, who lived in Boonville from 1850 to 1860 . He built Riverscene mansion across the river from Boonville in 1869 . It was said that Captain Kinney picked out the lumber for his elegant home along the banks as he traveled the river and had it cut and delivered to the building area. Today the river is still important to the county’s economy. Barges are used to transport grain and other products. ​ Brief History of Steam boating on the Missouri River By Bob Dyer ​ References : Steamboats on the Missouri River Steamboat unloading wheat for the Sombart Mill in Boonville Nadine Excursion Boat near Boonville The St. Jacobs Oil steamboat at Boonville 1870's-Macurdy. Boonville Mill in the background THE MISSOURI RIVER CAN BE VERY DANGEROUS AND UNPREDICTABLE Why does the Missouri flood more now than much earlier? The only bad flood in the 1800 ’s (#4) was in 1844 . The next bad one did not come until 1944 (#8), one hundred years later. There is a lot of finger pointing that the river has been changed by straightening, and building reservoirs and levees. However, heavy snow falls and late spring rains upstream also are big contributing factors. The flooding in 2019 was believed to have been triggered by record snowfall in the Rocky Mountains of Montana and Wyoming along with near-record spring rainfall in central and eastern Montana. All six major dams along the Missouri River released record amounts of water to prevent overflow which led to flooding threatening several towns and cities downstream. ​ Missouri also had record rain in late May in 2013 and 2019 . All six major dams along the Missouri River released record amounts of water to prevent overflow, which led to flooding downstream, which flooded several towns and cities. The result - buildings and homes were severely damaged, and some washed away. Roads and bridges were underwater, as were the just emerging spring crops. Precious topsoil helped to make the Muddy MO even muddier. Cars, buildings and machinery were badly damaged, or also washed away by the force of the rushing water. Countless animals drowned and the number of human deaths from the flooding is unknown. ​ Historic Flood Crests of Missouri River at Boonville (1) 37.10 ft on 07/29/1993 (2) 33.73 ft on 05/31/2019 (3) 33.14 ft on 05/19/1995 (4) 32.70 ft on 06/21/1844 (5) 32.62 ft on 07/17/1951 (6) 32.02 ft on 06/27/1947 (7) 31.85 ft on 10/05/1986 (8) 30.93 ft on 04/27/1944 (9) 30.74 ft on 04/07/1983 (10) 30.72 ft on 06/02/2013 ​ Source: Historical Crests for Missouri River at Boonville US Weather Service Scroll to read the story about the Flood of 1993 Bob Dyer’s poem for a friend who lost his home to the flood of 1993 Poem by Bob Dyer, courtesy of Sharon Dyer Highway 40 during the 1951 Flood just across the river from Boonville. From the Wayne Lammers collection. Video of 2019 Missouri River at Boonville Flood Videos by Tracy and Ashley Friedrich @FarmAlarm. Boonville YouTubers ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ Map of the Missouri River and it's tributaries. Source: Wikipedia ​ The Missouri River is North America's longest river, beginning in western Montana and ending 2,341 miles away, north of St. Louis, Missouri, where it enters the Mississippi River. The name 'Missouri' is derived from the Missouria tribe name, meaning 'people with wooden canoes'. The Missouri River and its tributaries have been important to people for more than 12,000 years, for many reasons including transportation, fishing, irrigation, and as a water source for animals which in turn helped to feed the people in the region. During the westward expansion of the United States the Missouri River played an important role. Because of industrial and agricultural use in the 20th century, the water quality, and animal and fish populations have been greatly impacted. ​ ​ Other Interesting Missouri River Facts It is believed that the Missouri River formed about 30 million years ago, but because it changes its course over time, the current course of the Missouri is estimated at 115,000 years old. ​ Major tributaries to the Missouri River include Yellowstone River, Platte River, and the Kansas River. The Missouri River flows through several states including Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota. It flows past Iowa, Nebraska, Missouri, and Kansas. The first explorers to lay their eyes on the Missouri River were Louis Joliet and Father Jacques Marquette. These Frenchmen were floating along the Mississippi River in 1673 when they spotted it. ​ Lewis and Clark were the first to travel the entire length of the Missouri River, which they accomplished in 1804. The Missouri River flows from Montana's Gallatin, Madison, and Jefferson Rivers for 2,341 miles to the Mississippi River north of St. Louis, Missouri. The Missouri River is the world's 15th longest river. The Missouri River basin (area of land drained by the river) is 529,350 square miles in size. ​ Approximately 10 million people live in the Missouri River basin. This includes people from 10 states, from a small region in Canada, and from 28 different Native American tribes. The dams that have been built along the Missouri River have changed its ability to flow freely. Although this stops flooding in many regions, it changes the natural environment as well. The Missouri River has been called "Big Muddy" and "Muddy Mo" because of its ability to relocate large amounts of soil on occasion. ​ There are approximately 150 fish species in the Missouri River, and about 300 species of birds live in the Missouri River's region. The Lewis and Clark Historic Trail follows the Missouri River, making it possible for people to follow. Along the trail are roughly 100 historical sites to explore. ​ Many National Parks in the United States are located in the Missouri River's watershed, including Glacier National Park, Yellowstone National Park, Badlands National Park, and Rocky Mountain National Park. ​ Source: Snoddy's Store by boat Flyover by drone of the Missouri River at Boonville Flood flyover in airplane

  • GENEALOGY | Cooper County Historical Society


  • PRE-CIVIL WAR | Cooper County Historical Society

    PRE-CIVIL WAR THE CIVIL WAR 1861-1864 RESULTED IN CHANGES IN COOPER COUNTY POPULATION If we consider the census records, the period between 1860 and 1910 looks like the “Boom Time” for Cooper County, as the population increased by 5,351, and many new businesses were opened. Yet, the “Boom” did not really start until after the end of the Civil War, and the Reconstruction period was over. ​ THE CIVIL WAR AND POPULATION “The Civil War is a bitter part of the history of both Cooper County and Missouri. Neighbors and even families were divided between North and South. Missouri was truly a divided Border State. When Missouri was admitted to the Union, as a slave state, it tried to remain neutral and did not want to break up the Union. But since many of the early residents were from the South, it was natural for them to favor slavery. Central Missouri had already become a very wealthy area due to the rich soil for crops, especially tobacco. This was only possible because the landowners brought their slaves with them to work the land. We often hear how poorly slaves were treated. And that may be true in some instances. But studies have shown that most slaves were well treated and were considered to be almost members of the owner’s family. The only difference was that they lived apart from owners family and ate their meals from the kitchen. True, their cabins were not something we would want to live in today, and their clothing was basic, but that was over 200 year ago and standards were in many ways were different. Missouri men fought on both sides of the Civil War. But some, on both sides, seemed to enjoy antagonizing people. It was common for Union soldiers to stop a passerby to demand people pledge their allegiance to the Union. This harassment caused many people to become Southern sympathizers. However the Southern guerrillas were just as bad. ​ Source: A History of Pilot Grove, Missouri The two battles and two occupations and the resulting ravages of the Civil War, began with a skirmish on June 17, 1861, (the First Battle of Boonville) and the war would last on and off for four years. Families and farms, both those in Boonville, and the rest of Cooper and surrounding counties, were attacked by the Union Army. Bushwhackers, and looters: During the war, farms and homes in Boonville, and in surrounding areas, were looted of all visible food in order to feed the armies on both sides. Valuables, even blankets, and furniture were taken. Meanness and anger seemed to be everywhere. Homes, barns and crops were burned, leaving the civilians and farmers with nothing. Grain mills and a few churches were also badly damaged or destroyed. In fact, almost all County church activity was disrupted during the War. One of our members (“Winky” Friedriches) said that when her grandmother heard that the “Yankees“ were coming, they buried all their silver. After the war, they found only a few of pieces that they had buried. Where the rest went, no one knew. Before the war ended on June 02,1865, three more battles would be fought in the Boonville area. The devastations of war were eventually experienced by almost everyone in the County and surrounding areas. Many citizens were forced to abandon their homes and farms, while other citizens were robbed or killed. Very few horses were left in the County by the end of the war. ​ WHY DID THE CIVIL WAR START IN CENTRAL MISSOURI? Missouri had already been accepted into the Union as a slave state prior to the war, but there were still very strong, differing opinions on both sides of that decision. Yet, Missouri voted to stay with the Union, although Governor Jackson refused to send troops to fight for the Union. It seems that the “key” reason that Boonville was chosen for the early battle was the fact that it was located in the center of the state of Missouri and was on the Missouri River. Being on the river meant that troops, artillery, horses, food and equipment could be quickly and easily moved to the area of battle. Being in the center of the state allowed the Union troops to easily move anywhere they were needed. ​ SLAVERY AND THE CIVIL WAR Boonville’s Earliest Connections to the Civil War, Started Long Before the Civil War started Slavery was complicated. The Civil War didn’t “just happen.” It was the culmination of many events that took place over many years. Some of those events took place in Missouri and many of the people involved got their professional start in Boonville at that time. To understand what happened and its significance to Missouri, we need to back up to the mid-1790s. 1. Somewhere around 1795, Mr. and Mrs. Whiteside’s and their slave girl “Winny” moved from Carolina to Illinois, which at that time was part of the 1789 Northwest Ordinance Territory and “free”. By 1800, the family had moved to Missouri. In 1818, Winny sued for her freedom in the Superior Court of the Missouri Territory. The case wasn’t heard until after Missouri achieved statehood, so it was transferred to the state Circuit Court of St. Louis County. Winnie’s argument was that her residence in the Northwest Territory made her free, and after a jury trial in February 1822, the court ruled in her favor. Meanwhile… Howard County was created in 1816. With land on both sides of the Missouri River, it physically covered more than 1/3 of the state, including what is now Cooper County. Howard County’s first Circuit Court convened in Boonville on July 8 of that year and one of the four attorneys who attended that first term was Edward Bates. Bates would later play a much larger role than a county lawyer. As the population grew on both sides of the river, people asked that Howard be made into two counties. In December 1818, all of Howard County south of the Missouri River became Cooper County. Boonville was the location for the new County’s first Circuit Court which began on March 1, 1819. Over the next two years, 14 lawyers were enrolled to practice in Cooper County, three of whom were George Tompkins, John F. Ryland, and Hamilton R. Gamble. Each of these three men would one day sit on the Missouri Supreme Court and make decisions that would reach far beyond the boundaries of the state. 2. Back to “Winny” … Missouri was admitted as a slave state in 1821. In 1824, George Tompkins was appointed to Missouri’s Supreme Court. Slavery was a major issue in those days and many cases came before the state’s Highest Court, including “Winny” v. Whiteside’s. Mrs. Whiteside, now a widow, and “Winnie’s sole owner, chose to appeal the lower court’s decision and took her case to the Missouri Supreme Court. Three judges sat on the Supreme Court at that time and they were Mathias McGirk, George Tompkins, and Rufus Pettibone. In a 2-1 decision, the state’s Supreme Court upheld the decision of the lower court and it was this decision that set the precedent “once free, always free.” Justice Tompkins wrote in his majority opinion, “We are clearly of the opinion that if, by a residence in Illinois, the plaintiff (Mrs. Whiteside’s) lost her right to the property in the defendant, (Winny), and that right was not revived by a removal of the parties to Missouri.” (McGirk concurred and Pettibone voted in the minority) ​ Source: Elizabeth Davis, "Historically Yours " ​ BOONVILLE’S EARLIEST CONNECTION TO THE CIVIL WAR Boonville, central Missouri’s oldest city, is more than a small city in the middle of Missouri. It is home to a great deal of our state’s historic past. Following the Louisiana Purchase, Americans headed west, looking for adventure and new opportunities. Boonville, was settled in 1810 by Hannah Cole and her nine children, along with her brother-in-law’s family. All was peaceful for about two years until the once friendly Sac and Fox Indians roaming the area became hostile, around 1812. Their displeasure with the new settlers was encouraged by the British who pointed out that the Indians were losing their hunting grounds as more settlers arrived. The British encouraged the uprising by suggesting that if the Indians fought against the settlers, and the British won the War of 1812, the British would return the hunting ground to the Indians. (This is the same War of 1812 where the British set fire to the US Capitol in Washington D.C.) ​ For protection, the Coles and the other families moved to the forts north of the river. By 1814, they were back in Boonville. The Cole’s cabin was in a great location and had access to fresh water, so the family built a fort around it. Soon other settlers followed and built their houses in and around the Cole’s fort. ​ Howard County, which covered about one-third of what would become Missouri, was organized January 23, 1816, and Hannah Cole’s fort in Boonville was the site of the first county court in July of that year. ​ Asa Morgan and Charles Lucas platted Boonville in 1817. By 1818, Howard County, south of the Missouri River, had grown sufficiently to allow for the forming of another county. Thus, Cooper County was born, and Boonville became its county seat until a permanent seat could be determined. When Morgan and Lucas gave Boonville 50 acres on which to build a county courthouse, the deal was sealed. Boonville became the permanent county seat of Cooper County. ​ In 1818, Missouri made its first request for statehood. Rather than break the balance of power over the issue of slavery, Congress delayed Missouri statehood for three years. President James Monroe didn’t sign the Act making Missouri the 24th state of the Union until August 10, 1821. Source: Elizabeth Davis, "Historically Yours " ​ ​ SLAVERY RAISES IT’S UGLY HEAD AGAIN Missouri was admitted to the Union as a slave state. And after the Missouri Supreme Court ruled on Winny v. Whiteside, the precedent was set: “Once free, always free.” ​ In 1834, another slave, named Rachel, sued for her freedom in Rachel v. Walker. Rachel had been owned by an army officer and, in the course of his military assignments, she had lived in what is now Minnesota and Michigan, both of which were free territories. Back in St. Louis, she was sold to Walker. Rachel sued on the grounds of “once free, always free,” but this time the court ruled differently. It was the court’s opinion that the officer had no choice on where he would live, so Rachel had no grounds to ask for her freedom. ​ Rachel’s attorney immediately appealed to the Missouri Supreme Court. Two years later the original ruling of the lower court was overturned. The Court’s 1836 decision set another precedent: “If an officer of the United States Army takes a slave to a territory where slavery is prohibited, he forfeits his property.” This opinion was penned by Justice Mathias McGirk with George Tompkins concurring. Robert Wash was the minority vote. ​ These are the precedents that were used in at least 300 19th-century freedom suits which were found among St. Louis Circuit Court records in the 1990s. Both precedents were set by Mathias McGirk and former Boonville resident George Tompkins. Ten years after Rachel v. Walker, yet another slave and his family sued for their freedom based on “once free, always free.” This time the case made it all the way to the US Supreme Court. ​ Many books have been written about Dred Scott’s eleven-year battle for freedom and here, too, lie a few threads to Boonville. It started in 1846 after Scott’s failed attempt to buy his and his family’s freedom from Dr. Emerson. Just like Winny, Rachel, and dozens of other slaves since 1824, Scott and his wife filed “freedom suits.” After a series of trials, retrials and other delays, the Scotts finally won their freedom in January 1850. ​ Unfortunately, their freedom was short-lived because Mrs. Emerson, the doctor’s widow, appealed to the Missouri Supreme Court and none of the previous judges were still on the bench. They had all been replaced by William Napton, James H. Birch, and John F. Ryland. Ryland was the second lawyer from Boonville to reach the Missouri Supreme Court. Napton and Birch were strong pro-slavery advocates and Ryland, whose feelings weren’t as strong, still leaned toward slavery. The case was scheduled to be heard in March 1850, but due to an overloaded docket, the case was postponed until October. According to one historian, the justices had made a decision and it was unanimous, but their opinion was never written. Napton was supposed to have written it, but he postponed it because he was waiting for a particular legal book to arrive from the capital. Before he received it, however, the law changed. Beginning August 1851, judges on the Missouri Supreme Court had to be elected by the people. ​ Birch and Napton were not elected to stay on the court, but Ryland was. The two new members of the Court were William Scott and Hamilton Gamble. Gamble was Boonville’s third lawyer to attain a seat on the Missouri Supreme Court. Missouri entered the Union as a slave state in 1821, but the Missouri Supreme Court ruled “once free, always free” in the case of Winny v. Whiteside in 1824. Ten years later the state’s Supreme Court extended that precedent to include military personnel. ​ 3. When finally, the Dred Scott case came before the Missouri Supreme Court, the players and the rules had changed. On March 22, 1852, in another 2-1 decision, William Scott and John Ryland struck down 28 years of Missouri precedents when they overturned Dred Scott’s victory. William Scott wrote, “Times now are not as they were, when the former decisions of this subject were made.” One historian of the day remarked, “He might just as well have said their decision was strictly political.” ​ Hamilton Gamble wrote in his dissent: “Times may have changed, public feelings may have changed, but principles have not and do not change, and in my judgement, there can be no safe basis for judicial decisions, but in those principles which are immutable.” The Scotts were remanded to slavery, Mrs. Emerson remarried and moved to Massachusetts, and ownership of the Scott family was transferred to Mrs. Emerson’s brother John F. A. Sanford of New York. ​ Dred Scott appealed his case to the US Supreme Court in 1854. It was heard in 1856, but the decision wasn’t handed down until March 6, 1856, two days after President James Buchanan was sworn into office. ​ Chief Justice Roger Taney wrote for the 7-2 majority. To paraphrase Taney’s two-hour reading of the decision: “African Americans are not, and can never be, citizens, therefore, they have no rights to sue for their freedom. And Congress has no power to regulate slavery in new territories.” Taney, in an attempt to settle the issue slavery once and for all, had moved the country even closer to war. ​ In 1860, 22 men fought for the Presidential nomination. Edward Bates, Boonville’s first attorney with a connection to the Civil War, lost the Republication nomination to Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln was sworn in on March 4, 1861 and named Bates US Attorney General the following day. ​ Hamilton Gamble, who had resigned from Missouri’s Supreme Court in 1855 due to failing health, had moved to Pennsylvania in 1858. After the legally elected state officials were run out of Jefferson City, the Union put Missouri under martial law and asked Gamble to return to Missouri as its Provisional Governor. Source: Elizabeth Davis, "Historically Yours " ​ ​ MISSOURI SLAVES EMANCIPATED August 30, 1861 John C. Fremont, on August 30, 1861, declared martial law in Missouri and emancipated all the slaves in the state. Unfortunately for Fremont, this was done without the knowledge or consent of President Lincoln. ​ John Charles Fremont (1813 - 1890) was born in Savannah, Georgia, on January 21, 1813. He attended Charleston College, taught mathematics, and his legendary trailblazing skills earned him the nickname "Pathfinder." In 1838, he joined the Army Engineers Corps as a 2nd lieutenant. At the beginning of the Civil War, Fremont was promoted to Major General and assigned head of the Department of the West based in St. Louis. Shortly after the battle of Wilson's Creek, in an attempt to gain a political advantage, he began overstepping his authority. On August 30, 1861, he proclaimed martial law in Missouri: active secessionists were arrested, their property confiscated; slaves were emancipated; and newspapers suspected of disloyalty were shut down. ​ When news of Fremont's actions reached Washington, the President was not pleased. Lincoln did not want to link slavery to the war yet, because he feared it would give slave owners in the border states reason to join forces with the Confederacy. He requested Fremont withdraw or modify the proclamation. Fremont flatly refused both suggestions. Instead, he sent his wife, who happened to be the daughter of former Senate leader Thomas Hart Benton, to Washington to talk to Lincoln. ​ Fremont's blatant refusal, along with the arrival of his wife, angered the President, and Lincoln felt he had no other choice. On September 11, 1861, Lincoln revoked the proclamation as unauthorized and premature; on November 2, 1861, Fremont was also relieved of command. FREEDOM: At the end of the war, the Constitution still did not give the President the authority to abolish slavery. Even the Emancipation Proclamation of January 1, 1863 was not effective because it was ignored by the Confederacy and the slaves were not made aware of the change in their status. But Missouri did not offer empty promises. They held a special convention on January 11, 1865 that called for the immediate emancipation of “all enslaved persons in Missouri”. The United States did not ratify the 13th Amendment, officially freeing the enslaved, until December 6, 1865. Missouri can be proud of the fact that it was the first and only state to abolish slavery before it was passed by federal law. ​ Source: Adapted from "Historically Yours " by Elizabeth Davis ​ REMEMBERING OUR HERITAGE It has been more than one-hundred-fifty years since the beginning of the American Civil War. While neither side was wholly right, both fought and died for what they believed in. Some Americans think we should just forget about that war altogether and move on. Others feel we should remember it, study it, and learn from it. ​ Which side is which, you ask? Is it the North who wants to remember, or the South? Unless you answered “Both,” you would be wrong. Two such groups are the Daughters of Union Veterans and the United Daughters of the Confederacy. These groups work hard to remember the past and the part their ancestors played in fighting for their beliefs. While both are national organizations, they each have smaller local groups. It has been asked, “What’s in a name?” For the DUV and the UDC , names are important reminders of the past. The Daughters of Union Veterans have five local groups, called Tents, in the state of Missouri. They are: Julia Grant in St. Louis, Charlotte Harrison Boone in Kahoka, Ann Hawkins Gentry in Columbia, Mary Whitney Phelps in Springfield, and Josephine Garlock Morrow in Macon. The United Daughters of the Confederacy have twelve local Chapters across the state. They are: Boonville; Robert E. Lee 1567 Branson; Ozarks 2723 Campbell; John L. Patterson 2682 Columbia; John S. Marmaduke 713 Higginsville; Confederate Home 203 Independence; Independence 710 Jefferson City; Winnie Davis 628 Kansas City; Stonewall Jackson 639 Lexington; Sterling Price 2049 Marshall; Marshall R. E. Lee 552 St. Louis; Matthew Fontaine Maury 1768 Springfield; Springfield 625 ​ These two groups represent hundreds of women across the state who are descendants of veterans from each side of the war, that are actively preserving, remembering, and passing on the history of this great nation. ​ Adapted from "Historically Yours " by Elizabeth Davis. ​ There are several Civil War markers in Cooper County. See the What to See in Cooper County for information.

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